Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system. Its red color is due to the presence of large amounts of iron oxide, which is why it is also known as “the red planet”. About 3.5 billion years ago, it was thought to be very different from what it is today. It had atmosphere and water in the form of lakes and oceans. It is not known what happened, but for some strange reason Mars turned into a desert.
Scientists have wanted to investigate the mysteries of this celestial body and several projects have been planned to achieve it.
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This is how we are going to get to Mars. China-United Arab Emirates-United States Mission
Every 26 months the alignment of planets makes it possible to send probes to Mars. That is why various space agencies seize the occasion.
This February 9, it was the turn of the Arabs, who sent the Emirati probe Al-Amal (Esperanza, in Spanish) with the aim of promoting scientific research in Gulf countries and celebrating the anniversary of their federation. This probe being orbital will not land. He will spend two Earth years touring the planet and photographing it in order to analyze the evolution of the climate. With this we want to decipher what is the mechanism that enables the escape of small amounts of O2 and H2 from the atmosphere.
China, for its part, has its Tianwen-1 (Heavenly Questions) project, which includes three vehicles: a mobile robot, an orbital segment and a landing prototype. The Asian giant sent similar technology to explore the Moon, so they are not new to the matter, but even with their experience the execution of these maneuvers on Mars is still complex.
Being 200 million kilometers from Earth, radio signals take more than 10 minutes and the landing of the equipment, in real time, is practically impossible to predict. The descent of the capsule, therefore, must be carried out when the specialized cameras that it contains perceive the best place to land.
NASA is another of those who will also be protagonists of this space search. It will launch its Perseverance project a few weeks after China. In your case, the vehicle will plunge into the planet’s atmosphere, then fall into the fossil delta (the jezero crater).
Everyone will have different goals. The Arabs and Chinese will study geology and meteorology and NASA the location of organic remains that can be considered biomarkers.
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So are we going to get to Mars, as tourists?
Space X (SN9) is a prototype of a gigantic ship with which you want to transport a hundred people not only to the Moon, but also to Mars. This rocket is still in the testing phase and in one of the last (from the company in Boca Chica, Texas) as it reached a height of 10 kilometers, some problems began to appear. On the ascent the engines were turned off and some maneuvers were possible. But when he returned the landing was quite violent and caused a frenzy in flames.
The company retains its characteristic optimism. They already know that Space X maintains good control in the subsonic reentry, but that there are flaws when it comes to touching the ground and that will be focused on.
They are also working on the Starship (50 meters long), proposed by the firm Elon Musk, who suggest that it will be the most powerful launch vehicle ever created. They have already signed with NASA to even use it in missions to resupply supplies and research equipment to the International Space Station (ISS).
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Raffle of tickets for the trip to mars seats
Inspiration4 is a mission to orbit the Earth for 4 days and to visit (in the future) the modules of the ISS station. At the end of this year, its first fully private commercial flight into space is expected. The billionaire Jared Isaacman (creator of the idea) was the one who bought all the tickets for the New Dragon spacecraft (which will go on the Falcon 9 rocket, launched from NASA, Florida).
It is already known by Isaacman himself that one of the tickets will be for a worker at St. Jude Hospital (where they treat children with cancer and other diseases free of charge), another will be raffled among the people who help with the funds of this hospital children’s research (wanting to raise approximately $ 200 million in addition to the 100 million that Jared himself donated). The last one will be for an entrepreneur in the creation of web pages (to enter the contest you must use a Shift4Shop and post an inspiring story on Twitter before February 28).
More than levitate among the stars, this project seeks new horizons in the treatment of cancer, a disease that has taken so many lives. The proceeds will also help the development of Starship on its visit to the Moon and Mars.
As this is the first trip, the costs will be high, but it is expected that these will be reduced over time so that the space is accessible to all. We are getting closer and closer to our landscape in the window being stars and stars.
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Viruses, more current vaccines to eliminate them
Many think that viral infections are harmless. The current reality is very different. These microorganisms compete for the top spots as causes of serious disease.
They have managed to collapse emergency services and intensive therapies in a shocking way. Their changing structures keep scientists in check.
Who will win the game?
Here I will update you on the main viruses in circulation and their vaccines.
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Viruses, a threat lurking
Do you know how they make you sick? To begin with, I tell you that this microbe needs a cell to live. Once he finds it, he makes it his home and puts it to work for his benefit.
The main objectives of viruses are to multiply and infect new structures. Faced with work overload, the cell ends up being damaged, stops performing its function and dies.
A virus infects your lungs. Respiratory cells are damaged. Then the symptoms of the disease appear: fever, cough, shortness of breath, among others.
Do you know why you regularly suffer from viral diseases? The answer is simple. Scientists estimate that viral conditions are 10 times more common than bacterial ones.
You will find out if you compare the number of times you got kidney disease and the number of times you have had the flu. Amazing, right? Sure you got lost on the second account.
This is how the human being lives or better, coexists with these microbes. The problem arises when they become more aggressive and cause serious infections, turning into epidemics and even pandemics.
The biology of viruses is different from that of bacteria. Therefore, they cannot be fought with antibiotics. Only vaccines and antiviral drugs reduce or eliminate the diseases caused by these microorganisms.
Viral diseases 2020-2021
During 2020 and early 2021, epidemic outbreaks were reported in different countries. I comment on them below.
- Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in the Republic of Guinea
- Measles in Central African Republic
- Dengue in Chile
- Yellow fever in Uganda
- Variant of the H3N2 influenza virus in the United States of America
In the region of the Americas, the circulation of measles, diphtheria and dengue viruses increased. However, 2020 will be remembered as the year of the Covid-19 pandemic. A disease that emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world in just a few months.
Here’s an example of how dangerous these microorganisms can be. And not to mention mutations (these changes that occur in its structure), which make them a real challenge for scientists.
Are they not a threat? How can we defend ourselves?
Well, the human body has natural defenses (antibodies) that protect it from infection, but sometimes they are not enough. This is where vaccines come into play.
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The first vaccine in history
In 1796, the researcher Edgar Jenner realized that the rural population suffered from a type of smallpox. This was due to direct contact with cows. He noted that these people did not suffer from deadly smallpox.
Jenner injected a boy with cowpox, waited for him to recover, and then injected him with human smallpox. Do you know what happened? The boy did not get sick, he had created antibodies!
Since that fascinating discovery vaccines came to protect us.
Should I get vaccinated or not?
Despite all the information available, there are people who still question the fact of getting vaccinated. Of course you should get vaccinated! There is extensive research before any drug is used in humans.
Here is a list of the most current vaccines.
- Chickenpox vaccine
- Hepatitis B vaccine
- Hepatitis A vaccine
- Hib vaccine
- HPV Vaccine
- Triple viral
- Conjugated pneumococcal
- Polysaccharide pneumococcal
- Polio vaccine
- Rotavirus vaccine
- Herpes zoster vaccine
- Tdap vaccine
Vaccination schedules allow you to organize the immunization process by age.
Should I get vaccinated to travel?
I recommend you visit your family doctor to update your vaccination before traveling. There is a scheme that includes reactivations against tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B, etc. The health authorities suggest certain vaccines depending on the region or state to which you will travel.
During the current epidemic, some nations ask travelers for a negative PCR test to enter the country. Vaccination against Covid-19 is not yet required.
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Do you know the current vaccines against Covid-19?
Faced with the international emergency motivated by Covid-19, the scientific community got on with it. As of March 31, 252 vaccines were registered in development, 70 in clinical trials and 13 are already in use. Amazing!
Vaccines in use
- SPUTNIK V
Remember something very important. Vaccines do not prevent the virus from infecting you, they only ensure that you do not develop a serious illness. Protective measures do prevent you from contracting any viral infection.
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What is liquefied gas and how is it collected?
The discovery of fossil fuel deposits radically changed the course of history. It is impossible to imagine the technological development that humanity now enjoys without the precious “black gold”.
With the processing of petroleum, many variants of fuels arose, including more efficient and less polluting. Liquefied gas is one of them. Do you know its variants and how to obtain it? In this article you will find the answers to this and other questions.
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What is liquefied gas?
There are 4 states of aggregation of matter: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. In nature, substances can pass from one form to another through different physical-chemical processes. When gases condense they change to a liquid state and this is precisely what happens with liquefied gas.
Technology intervenes in this process, since naturally most substances are present in a more or less invariable state. Industrially, two terms are used: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with clear differences between the two.
Liquefied petroleum gas is a derivative of the well-known “black gold” found naturally in deposits or collected during the industrial processing of crude oil.
It is composed of two types of condensable gases: propane and butane. These are organic molecules that are formed from the combination of hydrocarbons. In addition to this structure is added a residue from oil processing: 1,3-butadiene.
The pure formula for these gases is: C3H8 for propane and C4H10 for butane. This means that in the first case the molecule is made up of three carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms. In the case of butane, it would be 4 carbon and 10 hydrogen.
The GLP that is marketed does not retain this same state of purity since the carbon atoms: C3 and C4 are incorporated in a proportion of 80% -20%. Propane will always have a predominance of C3 bonds, while C4 stands out for butane.
LNG is a substance similar in appearance to water that is obtained by cool natural gas to -161 ° C. It is an industrial process whose objective is to optimize gas transport since doing so in a liquid state reduces its profitability.
Characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas
Some of the characteristics of LPG are:
- Colorless: Transparent, similar to water.
- Odorless: When obtained it does not give off any odor although later ethyl mercaptan is added for marketing. This odorant works as a security measure in order to identify a leak.
- It is not toxic although it displaces oxygen so it is not recommended to expose yourself for a long time.
- It is highly flammable so it should be kept away from any heat source.
- It is very profitable as a fuel for its production and performance.
- One liter of liquefied gas is equivalent to 273 liters of steam.
For its part, LNG offers some advantages compared to LPG. Their characteristics are:
- It is naturally odorless. As with liquefied petroleum gas, mercaptan is added as a protective measure.
- Is less polluting. During its combustion it generates negligible levels of sulfur oxide and greenhouse gases. This makes it an eco-friendly fuel and is therefore the liquefied gas of choice to reduce atmospheric pollution.
- If spilled on land or water, it evaporates and rises without generating waste.
- It is less flammable.
- Takes up 600 times less space than in a gaseous state.
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Differences between LNG and LPG
In order for you to better understand the main differences between liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, I have prepared the following table for you.
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LPG obtaining process
The history of the use of LPG dates back to the beginning of the last century. It all started in the United States when it was found that natural gasoline evaporates as a result of the release of hydrocarbons present in the mixture.
This discovery led to the devising of a process for the refinement of fuel in order to extract propane and butane. After studying these gases, they found the high energetic value supporting its potential use as a fuel.
The collection of liquefied petroleum gas in refineries begins with the primary processing of crude oil in these plants. The derivatives obtained are: wet gas, gasoline, diesel, kerosene and vacuum diesel.
The latter are used for the production of gasoline and LPG is released as a by-product. These gases are included in a mixture in which there are other additives: gasoline and heavy products. Finally they are separated through a distillation process.
Despite the fact that the highest volume of LPG is obtained as a result of the oil refining, it can be extracted directly from oil fields.
The process consists of lowering the temperature to values below -40 ° C to favor the condensation of these heavy elements. Then the liquid is introduced into distillation trains where the mixture of propane and butane is purified.
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What is plastic and where does it come from? NotiFresh.com
Have you ever wondered what our lives would be like without plastic? Before 1950 the answer was very simple. Today, it is difficult to imagine the world without this material.
This is because more than 400 million tons of plastics produced each year flood everything. It is present in houses, streets, offices and even our own clothing and medical remedies.
But what is plastic? Where does it come from? Here we give you some information you need to know about this versatile and essential material.
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What we call plastic
The term comes from the Greek plastikos whose meaning is to mold. This definition refers to its capacity for malleability or plasticity during its manufacture. It is enough to pour a paste into a mold to obtain hundreds of thousands of copies of the same object.
We call plastic a range of products made up of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds. As a fundamental mechanical quality, they have the ability to form with pressure and heat.
Where you look you will find it. It is due to the great diversity of shapes, textures and colors in which you can find it. Has it happened to you that you have touched something that you did not know was plastic?
Plastic was born from a contest
The first time plastic was created was as a result of a competition. It was called by the American billiard ball manufacturer Phelan and Collander in 1860.
The company awarded $ 10,000. The challenge? Replace the ivory used in the creation of the game balls with a resistant material that is acceptable in its aesthetics.
Who won? Historiography does not know it. However, this event served as a reason for John Weasley Hyatt will perform his experiments. Upon completion, he obtained what was then patented under the name of celluloid.
The discovery had a remarkable commercial success. The result of synthesizing cellulose in camphor and ethanol made it possible to manufacture different objects. It was used at first for knife handles, eyeglass frames, and a few other tools.
However, the most revolutionary thing at that time was the creation of the motion picture. Without it, the beginning of Movie industry at the end of the 19th century.
It was not until 1909 that humanity enjoyed the first fully synthetic plastic in history. When the American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland, he obtained a polymer of commercial interest. The Belgian-born scientist made the compound from phenol and formaldehyde molecules.
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How is plastic made today?
The versatility of plastic materials is not just a product of their properties. The elements used in its formation affect characteristics such as:
- Resistance to corrosion and chemical agents
- Thermal and acoustic insulation
- The good aesthetic presentation.
To manufacture them, two main processes are carried out: polymerization and poly-condensation. Both require specific catalysts, coming from highly complex chemical processes in many cases.
From natural compounds based on cellulose, coal, natural gas, salt and oil, the industry develops different plastic artifacts.
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An unsolved problem: plastic and the environment
Half of the objects made of this material become waste in four or five years.
For 2017 a study published in the journal Science Advances warned about the amount of plastics produced by humans. Throughout history, it turned out to be comparable to the weight of a million Eiffel towers.
Other research talks about the number of grams of plastic that people ingest per week. These data are around 21 grams per month and just over 250 per year. This only through water, both bottled and tap.
On the other hand, the source of obtaining is mostly high molecular weight organic polymers. These are chemical derivatives of hydrocarbons. A considerable part of the world’s crude oil production goes to this industry.
The use of said non-renewable raw material implies in the first place the depletion of the resource. At the same time, as a consequence of industrial processes, greenhouse gases are emitted. These are emissions harmful to the ozone layer and stimulants of climate change.
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