Venezuelan finding surprises science! ?
Paleontologist at the IVIC discovered a fossil of what could be the oldest vampire bat in the world, according to morphological analysis.
The discovery of the fossil was made in the Breal de Orocual, an asphalt deposit, in Monagas state. pic.twitter.com/80tmUBxOLi
– Ministry for Science and Technology (@Mincyt_VE) September 8, 2020
In Venezuela it was discovered in a tar pit the older vampire bat of the world, with an approximate age of 2.5 million years. This is shocking news because never before has a specimen been found as old as the Venezuelan.
The Ministry of Science and Technology reported on its Twitter account (@Mincyt_VE) that the finding was made by the Venezuelan paleontologist Ascanio Rincón. This expert identified the specimen among remains found in 2007 in the Breal de Orocual, located in the eastern Monagas state.
It is an ancestor of the Phyllostomidae desmondotinae, a subspecies of chiroptera that feeds on the blood of mammals, which is why it is known as the “vampire bat”. This species lives in warm areas from North America to Argentina.
However, we are before older vampire bat never found, as it fell into this well 2.5 million years ago. This is news as important as the recent Discovery of 60 mammoths under a Mexican airport.
With international help they find the oldest vampire
Rincón had the help of the expert Nicholas Czaplewski, director of the Museum of Natural History of Oklahoma, United States. Both made a morphological analysis of the remains and the biological material extracted from the Breal de Orocual since 2006, where other fossils of prehistoric megafauna have been identified.
Now, They find the oldest giant vampire on the planet from a group of bones that he related to this specimen with the Desmodus draculae species found in the Guácharo Cave, also in Monagas state. But in this case, it will be classified within a new genus of the Desmodontinea subfamily.
There are several families of bats or bats that feed on insects, fruits, and even small birds and reptiles. The Desmodontinae feed on the blood that emanates from small wounds that they cause on the skin of their victims, whom they attack at night.
They find the vampire in the world’s largest tar pit
The Breal de Orocual, where the older vampire bat It is the largest natural asphalt pit on the planet and has an area of 18,500 square meters and a volume of more than 37,000 cubic meters. It was discovered in 2006 during the construction of an oil pipeline.
The workers found skeletons of unknown animals in an excellent state of preservation, so the Venezuelan government stopped the work. Shortly after the paleontologist Ascanio Rincón began the task of excavating and classifying the existing fossil remains.
A 3 million year old megafauna graveyard
The Orocual Breal was formed in the late Pleistocene, about 3 million years ago. Between 2006 and 2007 the remains of 34 large animals that died after falling into this natural trap were found there.
Since then the remains of the South America’s first “Scimitar Teeth” Tiger (Homotherium venezuelensis), as well as toxodons, glyptodonts, hedgehogs and giant armadillos, camelids and prehistoric tapirs, as well as several very ancient types of vultures.
This surprising finding reminds us of the case of a fisherman who caught a very rare long-nosed chimera on their networks in Canada.
The selfless work of a Venezuelan anthropologist
The discovery of older vampire bat of the planet has a human background, as Ascanio Rincón works in this well almost in a personal capacity. The Venezuelan economic crisis has left his research project without funds and his salary and official scholarships are not enough to live.
In 2018 he was mentioned in a BBC report as “the only paleontologist who continued to investigate in Venezuela”, after losing his students. But Rincón made it clear that “Venezuela is a lost paradise for paleontology”And would not stop working.
In fact, Ascanio Rincón was the discoverer of the first “Scimitar Teeth” Tiger of South America, identified as Homothrium venezuelensis, a relative of the well-known “Sabretooth” tiger.
In addition, this dedicated researcher participated directly in the discovery of the first Venezuelan carnivorous dinosaur, the Tachiraptor admirabilis, whose remains were extracted from the La Quinta formation, in the western state of Táchira.
In 2019 he identified the remains of two giant sloths after comparing unclassified bones found in the Urumaco desert, northwest of Venezuela. These bones had been forgotten for 40 years at Harvard University, United States.
Things you can change in your life to save the planet
The biological diversity of planet earth faces a mass extinction and that is why millions of people seek a way to help save the planet Before it’s too late
Since the disappearance of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, there had not been a situation where it was urgent save the planet like the one that has been lived for 20 years.
The disappearance of animal and plant species due to environmental pollution and the change in weather patterns caused by human action is practically unstoppable.
Although it is industry and governments that must make the biggest changes to prevent this damage from continuing, there is much we can do to save the planet from our position.
Using recyclable bags, a first step to save the planet
In the XXI century, the biggest environmental pollutant is plastic and million tons of plastic bags discarded reach drinking water sources, seas and lands of cultivation every year.
The worst thing is that this plastic can take centuries to fully degrade and also releases toxic products during this process.
Among the measures for save the planet What you can take is to reduce the use of plastic bags.
Swap them out for a washable cloth or recyclable bag when you do your shopping.
Measures to save the planet: Adjust your fridge
Many people use the refrigerators and air conditioners at their maximum power, although it is not necessary to do so, increasing the consumption of electricity.
Many countries dependent on thermoelectric energy are forced to burn more gas or oil to supply this energy, producing more greenhouse gases.
We recommend that you set your fridge to operate in a range of 3 to 5 degrees Celsius in the lower part and between -17 and -15 degrees in the freezer part. Also avoid opening the door if it is not necessary.
Likewise, the air conditioning in summer can be used comfortably at 21 or 22 degrees. further use the conditioner only in the hottest hours.
Use pressure cookers and flat pans
Another action you can take to save the planet is to use pressure cookers when cooking large chunks of meat or coarse-grained vegetables.
The pressure cookers cook faster and use less energy.
As well use flat bottom pots and pans and whose diameter is greater than the surface of the burner, to make the most of the heat.
As for the use of the oven, avoid preheating it unless it is very necessary and turn it off about 15 minutes before the time stipulated in the recipes.
The heat inside the oven will finish cooking the food and you will have helped the planet a little bit by saving electricity or gas.
If you want to save the planet, reduce your meat consumption
Another of the measures to save the planet is reduce the amount of meat you eat weekly.
It is not that you become vegan, but that you are aware that the meat production is one of the most harmful activities For the enviroment.
If humanity stops eating meat and dairy products once a week, greenhouse gas emissions generated by agricultural and livestock activities can be reduced by 60%.
But if humanity completely abandons its consumption, the size of the deforested land would be reduced by 75% each year to turn it into agricultural land.
Don’t ask for plastic cutlery in your takeout
Another way to save the planet one step at a time is to refuse the use of plastic cutlery in your takeout.
A very common practice when buying take-out food is to include plastic cutlery.
This is absurd, since it is assumed that in your house you already have metal cutlery.
A good practice in your office is to also keep a reusable cutlery set in your desk drawer.
When ordering food for delivery, be sure to make it clear that you are not included plastic cutlery, which will end up in the trash and it will take 1,000 years to decompose.
Use glass or ceramic bottles and mugs
In addition to plastic bags, water bottles are the most polluting element on the planet.
Until the use of a new enzyme that destroys plastic in hours advances, the process of recycling this material will continue to be very expensive.
So instead of buying bottles of water, purchase a glass or stainless steel bottle and fill it with filtered water when you leave your house.
This will help you save a lot of money in the long run and avoid contributing to plastic pollution in the seas and soils of the planet.
This also applies when drinking coffee. Use a ceramic or glass mug instead of the disposable cups.
Saving the Earth by eliminating the use of paper
In order to save the planet, ask your banking, telephone, water and electricity providers to submit monthly invoices electronically instead of being printed on paper.
If available, buy digital editions of your newspapers
and favorite magazines and avoid acquiring the printed versions.
Thus you will help save thousands of hectares of forests every year, which are felled to produce pulp and basic paper pulp.
The reduction of paper consumption is one of the measures to save the planet that can have the greatest impact, if we all join together to implement it.
Share your car
In many metropolises it is difficult to use public transport to travel long distances, so you may have no choice but to continue using your car.
However, using a car to transport just one person is wasteful of resources that in no way helps save the planet.
The best thing you can do is share the car with someone you know who is on the same route.
You can even take turns using this person’s car one day and yours the next.
In addition to helping the planet by reducing the number of cars on the streets, you will strengthen friendships and you can even get them to help with your gasoline expenses.
Don’t use plastic straws anymore
Straws, straws or straws are another source of pollution for the planet, since the plastic material with which they are made it may take 2 centuries to decompose totally.
So if you don’t need them you shouldn’t even accept to get them placed in your drink.
In any case, there are reusable straws made of bamboo, silicone, glass or even stainless steel, which are a better option than those made with plastic.
Buy your food in organic markets
Buying food at independent markets guarantees that your vegetables come from the field and have not been processed or washed with chemicals dangerous to your health.
In addition, these products are sold without plastic, cardboard or paper wrappers that pollute the environment.
Needless to say that in many situations their prices are better and the taste of the food is much superior.
Growing organic food is part of several measures to save the planet that go through the elimination of the use of fertilizer chemicals
and poisons for agricultural use dangerous to human health.
Saving the Earth with LED bulbs
Although the use of LED or fluorescent light bulbs in homes has been promoted in Europe and the United States, the incandescent bulbs are still the most widely used on the entire planet.
Sadly, these bulbs are popular because they are so much cheaper, but in return they use up to 5 times more electricity.
Although new technologies are developed to improve solar energy production and make it cheaper, the most practical solution remains to reduce consumption in homes and industries.
One of the actions to save the planet that you can do is buy only energy-saving light bulbs, with LED technology if possible.
Although they are more expensive, their duration is up to 10 times longer than a common light bulb, so you will help the Earth and your finances at the same time.
Curious facts of the universe that you did not know. You can’t believe it!
If you are very interested in science and technology, surely you are interested in knowing some curious facts of the Universe in which we live, showing us how complex reality is.
Despite the advances made in astronomy, physics, and mathematics over the past 200 years, we still know very little about our planet, the solar system, and the Universe itself.
In fact, we are still immersed in a continuous battle of theories about the origin of the Universe, and its systems.
In the attempt to demonstrate these theories, scientists only manage to discover more and more curious facts of the Universe that complicate things.
While science is in charge of putting order in the midst of so much information, we are going to talk about some curious facts of the Universe
that will surely surprise you.
The night sky gives us information about the Universe, in the past tense
Another curious fact about the Universe that you should know is that light travels at 300 thousand kilometers per second.
However, thousands of years can pass before him
shine of a star reaches the earth and be seen by us at night.
For this reason, when the night sky is a photograph of the remote past of the Universe, perhaps 500 or 2,000 years ago.
In fact, perhaps some of the farthest stars that our telescopes can see are already dead and we won’t know for a few years when the light of their agony reaches us in the form of a Supernova.
Although our Sun will suffer the same fate in 5,000 million years, it is possible that by then the sky has many fewer points of light, why many stars will have already died as well.
The black hole and neutrinos
Speaking of more information about the Universe, you will be interested to know that in areas where no star is seen, there may be a hidden and very large one.
Most likely, many dark areas hide a black hole, which is an old sun that has reached such a mass density that its gravity traps even light particles.
At first glance, a black hole would look totally dark, but there is actually a large mass that absorbs other suns, celestial bodies, and light itself with its extreme gravity.
Another interesting phenomenon of the Universe are neutrinos, atomic particles that roam the Universe in all directions and they go through all the bodies in their path like butter.
But we also occasionally have the opportunity to detect phenomena that fill the space with particles, such as largest cosmic explosion ever detected until now.
Time travel is possible
In theory time travel is possible, although scientists insist that only towards the future why time is a “one-way dimension”.
To affirm this they are based on the Theory of General Relativity and the Theory of Partial Relativity of Albert Einstein.
In them, the genius of the twentieth century stated that both the time and space are relative and that no object or particle can travel faster than light, that is, at more than 300,000 kilometers per second.
According to Einstein, the more we accelerate towards the speed of light, the faster time will pass around us.
That means that an astronaut traveling for 15 minutes at the speed of light (according to his watch) might find that years or centuries have passed outside the spacecraft due to the deformation of the space-time line.
Born with a fever, new information from the Universe
The most accepted theory so far about the origin of the Universe is that at first it only existed a large mass that exploded in the so-called “Big Bang”.
Although the theory has not been proven one hundred percent, if it is known that after the explosion the matter was ejected in all directions
to a temperature of almost 100 million degrees Celsius!
From there the matter began to expand and the high temperatures began to transform it into different substances.
According to the information of the Universe collected by science, this hot mass gave way to the formation of all astronomical bodies that we know today, including the Sun and the Earth.
New information from the Universe: it’s getting cold
Just as the Universe was born at unimaginable temperatures, it is also known that now it’s getting cold at a fast pace as you get older.
Observations of the most distant galaxies, which are in the process of moving away from the theoretical center of the Universe, indicate that their temperature is much lower than those closest to the center.
This new information from the Universe tells scientists that the end of what we know It will be a great freeze billions of years from now.
However, there are also those who seek to verify that an inverse phenomenon to the Big Bang could occur, in this case, a gathering of the whole mass towards itself, call Big crunch.
The universe is infinite? We already know how tall it is!
It is very romantic to speak that the Universe is infinite, but the reality is that astronomical observations and measurements made with advanced satellites have allowed calculate its current size.
For this reason, another of the curious facts about the Universe that we will give you is that it has a diameter about 150 billion years, if we consider it an expanding sphere of matter.
It has also been determined that expands at increasing speed, although the force of gravity should hold the galaxies together.
Some studies suggest that this acceleration is the work of the so-called “dark energy” that in theory fills what for us is the apparent emptiness of space.
The Universe has come of age
Another curious fact about the Universe that you may not know is that the Big Bang happened exactly 13.7 billion years ago.
This age of the Universe was calculated based on the analysis of cosmic radiation.
This technique is more effective than counting radioactive nuclei in the cosmos and observing the oldest stars and the clusters in which they are found.
Despite the great number of years, new stars continue to form and systems, as well as formations such as the one considered the most spectacular nebula in the Universe (so far).
We cannot see most bodies in the Universe
Finally, we will talk about something that will surprise you and is that the most objects in the Universe are invisible in our sight.
Although we have large telescopes and modern satellites, much of what is out there It is only visible with X-ray equipment, ultraviolet light or sensors that capture energies that we cannot even imagine.
The Universe is both mass and energy, and the latter manifests itself in ways that the human mind cannot yet fully understand.
What’s more, the theory of dark energy has arisen from taking into account that something in the Universe, invisible to us, intervenes in the way galaxies interact and they move through the great emptiness of the cosmos.
Ways it affects our emotions
For centuries there has been a kind of popular knowledge that there is a relationship between influence of the moon and the behavior and growth of plants and animals.
Virtually all Eastern and Western cultures have texts or traditions that indicate when to cultivate based on the lunar cycle.
However, the influence of the moon about people is something that has not been studied in depth, except for astrology and other less formal sciences.
Despite being the closest celestial body to us, there are many little known things on the moon.
Now science is finding that if there is a influence of the moon about human emotions or at least a statistical correlation that supports many theories on this topic.
Is there a lunar influence on the human brain?
For centuries there has been talk of “lunatics”, people who go mad at the lunar influence, especially during the Full Moon phase.
Even the myth of the “Werewolf” had its origin in stories of men who attacked their families and friends in fits of fury during this phase.
In 2013 a study on sleep was conducted in a group under controlled environment and it was found that during the full moon they took longer to fall asleep and they woke up earlier than at other times of the month.
In addition, in this moon phase the time they spent in deep sleep was 30% less than on other days of the lunar cycle.
The psychiatrist David Avery published a 2005 study of a middle-aged patient who suffered from constant mood swings and sleep problems.
Fortunately, this patient was an engineer and had an obsession to keep track of his mood swings, to “try to find a pattern” to explain them.
Avery was quick to find that the changes were cyclical and corresponded to ocean tides, which in turn are related to the gravitational influence of the Moon.
The influence of the Moon on rapid cycling bipolar disorder
In 2019, the psychiatrist Thomas Wehr published an article in which he spoke of 17 patients who suffered from a form of rapid cycle bipolar disorder.
This disorder is characterized by much faster and more marked mood swings than in normal cases of bipolarity.
Wehr noted that he was intrigued by the regularity of the changes and the similarity between people who didn’t even know each other.
After several observations he found that they coincided with the phase changes of the terrestrial satellite, so he did not hesitate to affirm that there could be a lunar influence on these patients.
Similarities Between Bipolar Patients and Moon Cycles
What is interesting about Wehr’s studies is that the regularity of his patients’ mood swings coincided with the duration of the Ocean tides produced by changes in the lunar phase.
In fact, he found that some changes occurred every 14.8 days while others occurred every 13.7 days.
Precisely the height of the tides has two different patterns that are repeated over and over again under the lunar influence, in this case, its force of gravity.
In the first, the height is maintained for 14.8 days and is caused by the joint gravity of the Sun and the Moon.
The second change has a duration of 13.7 days and is produced by the position of the Moon in the circle described by the Earth’s equator.
Neuroscience and the influence of the Moon on the brain
The creator of the so-called Somatic Method, Mark Filippi, describes the relationship that neuroscience has found between the lunar phases and human behavior.
Highlight the fact that depending on the moon phase, the production of certain neurotransmitters changes within the human brain, which could explain the reason for these alterations.
In this regard, Filippi explains that the four neurotransmitters whose production is altered by the influence of the Moon are acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine.
Phase from New Moon to First Quarter: Acetylcholine Time
During the first week of the lunar cycle, the brain increases acetylcholine production, a neurotransmitter involved in nerve cell communication.
This increase causes people a greater empathy and social sensitivity, that is, they become more receptive to their own and others’ emotions.
Therefore, the first week of the lunar cycle tends to have a lot of physical and mental energy, highlighting a greater ability to learn and memorize new informationn.
However, the increased sensitivity generated by the increase in acetylcholine in the brain has a negative effect and is that lowers the ability to concentrate on long tasks.
Crescent to Full Moon, the turn of serotonin
During the second week of the lunar cycle, which leads from the First Quarter to the Full Moon phase, the brain increases the production of serotonin.
The serotonin is also known as the “happiness hormone”, why intervenes in states of joy and placidity, as well as participates in various physical and mental processes.
This has the effect of increasing people’s energy and ability to concentrate, as well as making it easier for them to carry out creative tasks.
Full Moon to Last Quarter: increases dopamine
The third week of the solar cycle takes us from the Full Moon phase to the Last Quarter.
During this week, the brain increases the production of dopamine, a substance involved in the body’s motor function but also in memory and search for satisfaction-reward.
The lunar influence is manifested in a greater search for fun and distraction in a group, since the dopamine stimulates social closeness to other people.
The Full Moon is associated with an “excess” of mental activity, mainly because dopamine generates a increased emotional arousal and less repression of sexual urges.
Last Quarter to New Moon: the reactive noradrenaline
The last week of the solar cycle corresponds to the passage from the Last Quarter phase to that of the Full Moon, in which the Earth’s satellite is totally within the shadow that the Earth generates when intercepting the Sun’s light.
It is a phase in which the brain increases the production of norepinephrine, which among other things, is the “survival hormone“.
Norepinephrine causes a fight-or-flight reaction in animals and people, which can make a difference in the face of imminent danger.
In fact, this hormone causes greater activity in the area of the brain that handles basic instinctual and defensive behaviors.
In daily life, the lunar influence makes the people assume a defensive state in which they analyze everything around them a lot before making a decision.
It is considered to be the stage where there is less inspiration and more physical and emotional reaction.
Finally, it remains to say that many studies have also indicated that sports benefit the brain.
For this reason, some scientists analyze physical therapies to help people potentially sensitive to lunar influence, such as those mentioned here.
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