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Planetary system with possible star life Luyten discovered

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The universities of Granada (Spain) and Liege (Belgium) have just made history in the world of astronomy by announcing the possible discovery of a planetary system with possible life.

The discovery was published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, where it was explained that signs were found that at least one of the planets that revolve around the star GJ-273 could have favorable conditions for life.

This star, called Luyten by astronomers, is one of the “closest” to our planet, in relative terms of distances in space.

But the study done by scientists from Spain and Belgium suggest that at least one of the two planets discovered around GJ-273 has conditions conducive to the development of life, (at least as we know it on Earth).

The results of this study further increase the surprise of the scientific world at the curious facts of the Universe that are continually being discovered.

Why do they say that there may be life on another planet?

Having found a planetary system with possible life It arose from the study of Luyten’s light emissions and other data collected by modern astronomy systems, which made it possible to identify at least two planets in their orbit and their composition.

“At least one of these planets could harbor water,” explained Spanish researcher Francisco Pozuelos, who is the main author of the article.

Pozuelos worked on the study at the University of Granada as part of a collaborative effort with researchers from the University of Lieja, Belgium.

The presence of water was determined based on the data collected and the computer simulations carried out by the team, but Pozuelos clarified that direct evidence of the presence of this element has yet to be found.

The presence of water is key for life to develop and scientists celebrate when they find it on distant planets, as we saw in 2018 when water was found on planet K2-18b, distant 111 light years from us.

What is the Luyten system?

East planetary system with possible life It is made up of the star GJ-273. It stands out for being one of the closest to us in terms of distance and is also as complex as ours.

GJ-273 or Luyten, whatever you prefer to call it, it is only 12.23 light-years away, which ranks it as the fourth closest system to the Solar System discovered to date.

The other closest systems are Proxima Centauri (4.24 light years away), Ross-128 (10.99 light years away) and GJ 1061, which is located 11.96 light years away from our system.

It is also the third, apart from ours, where they have found at least one planet located in the “habitable zone”, that is, where the light from its star is sufficient to allow the presence of water in a liquid state.

Luyten is an M-type dwarf star and has two fully identified planets, named GJ-273b and GJ273c, and other planets not yet confirmed, which will be named GJ-273d and GJ-273e.

It goes without saying that the latest discoveries about the possibility of finding life on another planet make the Luyten system the prime candidate for a future space mission.

Life on Another Planet: Meet GJ-273b

Life on another planet

The use of modern astronomical technologies led to the discovery of GJ-273b

According to the analysis and simulations, the two planets not yet confirmed would have masses equal to or slightly less than Neptune, that is, between 9 to 12 times the Earth’s mass, so they could be classified in the category of “mini-Neptunes”.

But the two planets that have already been officially discovered, GJ-273b and GJ-273c, can be described as similar to Earth in chemical and physical composition.

The planet GJ-273c is similar in size to ours, but its brother GJ-273b would qualify in the category of “Super Earth” because of its greater mass.

But it is thanks to GJ-273b that perhaps soon we can ensure that we find another planetary system with possible life.

GJ-273b orbits in the habitable zone of Luyten, where it is neither too cold nor too hot and there may be water in a liquid state.

In addition, it shows tides due to heating, as happens with the masses of water and the wind on the earth’s surface and that originate from the interaction with the star’s gravity and its heat.

By allowing the presence of water in a liquid state, processes that can potentially give rise to complex organic products and cellular life are favored, as it is accepted that it occurred on Earth.

“All this favors the possible development and maintenance of a biosphere,” said researcher Juan Carlos Suárez, co-author of the article, who pointed out that if find life on another planet it will possibly be in GJ-273b.

Asteroids, precursors of life on another planet like on Earth?

find life on another planet

Comets and asteroids bring water to planets

Another reason to think that there may be life on another planet like GJ-273b, is that around Luyten orbit numerous asteroids and solid bodies
minors.

According to many studies, these asteroids, especially those made by ice, favor the formation of life by falling on the largest planets and providing them with large amounts of water and other elements.

Recall that our system has two large areas full of rock, ice, and frozen gas asteroids.

The first is located between Mars and Jupiter and is considered to be the remains of a large planet that once occupied this orbit.

The second zone of asteroids near our Sun corresponds to the so-called Kuiper Belt and is located beyond the orbit of Neptune.

To these are added other asteroids that enter from outside the solar system but are tied to the gravity of our star, such as the asteroid 4,000 discovered by the SOHO probe.

It is considered that the acarrying water and other basic elements by these asteroids by colliding with the Earth it favored the development of organic products and life.

Indeed, scientists use intensively as a clue to find another planetary system with possible life the presence or not of belts of asteroids, meteorites or comets.

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Science

Viruses, more current vaccines to eliminate them

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Many think that viral infections are harmless. The current reality is very different. These microorganisms compete for the top spots as causes of serious disease.

They have managed to collapse emergency services and intensive therapies in a shocking way. Their changing structures keep scientists in check.

Who will win the game?

Here I will update you on the main viruses in circulation and their vaccines.

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Viruses, a threat lurking

most current vaccines 3

Viruses, a threat lurking

Do you know how they make you sick? To begin with, I tell you that this microbe needs a cell to live. Once he finds it, he makes it his home and puts it to work for his benefit.

The main objectives of viruses are to multiply and infect new structures. Faced with work overload, the cell ends up being damaged, stops performing its function and dies.

A virus infects your lungs. Respiratory cells are damaged. Then the symptoms of the disease appear: fever, cough, shortness of breath, among others.

Do you know why you regularly suffer from viral diseases? The answer is simple. Scientists estimate that viral conditions are 10 times more common than bacterial ones.

You will find out if you compare the number of times you got kidney disease and the number of times you have had the flu. Amazing, right? Sure you got lost on the second account.

This is how the human being lives or better, coexists with these microbes. The problem arises when they become more aggressive and cause serious infections, turning into epidemics and even pandemics.

The biology of viruses is different from that of bacteria. Therefore, they cannot be fought with antibiotics. Only vaccines and antiviral drugs reduce or eliminate the diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Viral diseases 2020-2021

During 2020 and early 2021, epidemic outbreaks were reported in different countries. I comment on them below.

  • Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in the Republic of Guinea
  • Measles in Central African Republic
  • Dengue in Chile
  • Yellow fever in Uganda
  • Variant of the H3N2 influenza virus in the United States of America

In the region of the Americas, the circulation of measles, diphtheria and dengue viruses increased. However, 2020 will be remembered as the year of the Covid-19 pandemic. A disease that emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world in just a few months.

Here’s an example of how dangerous these microorganisms can be. And not to mention mutations (these changes that occur in its structure), which make them a real challenge for scientists.

Are they not a threat? How can we defend ourselves?

Well, the human body has natural defenses (antibodies) that protect it from infection, but sometimes they are not enough. This is where vaccines come into play.

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The first vaccine in history

In 1796, the researcher Edgar Jenner realized that the rural population suffered from a type of smallpox. This was due to direct contact with cows. He noted that these people did not suffer from deadly smallpox.

Jenner injected a boy with cowpox, waited for him to recover, and then injected him with human smallpox. Do you know what happened? The boy did not get sick, he had created antibodies!

Since that fascinating discovery vaccines came to protect us.

Should I get vaccinated or not?

most current vaccines 2

Should I get vaccinated or not?

Despite all the information available, there are people who still question the fact of getting vaccinated. Of course you should get vaccinated! There is extensive research before any drug is used in humans.

Here is a list of the most current vaccines.

  • Chickenpox vaccine
  • DTPa
  • Hepatitis B vaccine
  • Hepatitis A vaccine
  • Hib vaccine
  • HPV Vaccine
  • Flu
  • Meningococcal
  • Triple viral
  • Conjugated pneumococcal
  • Polysaccharide pneumococcal
  • Polio vaccine
  • Rotavirus vaccine
  • Herpes zoster vaccine
  • Tdap vaccine
  • Anti-tetanus

Vaccination schedules allow you to organize the immunization process by age.

Should I get vaccinated to travel?

I recommend you visit your family doctor to update your vaccination before traveling. There is a scheme that includes reactivations against tetanus toxoid, hepatitis B, etc. The health authorities suggest certain vaccines depending on the region or state to which you will travel.

During the current epidemic, some nations ask travelers for a negative PCR test to enter the country. Vaccination against Covid-19 is not yet required.

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Do you know the current vaccines against Covid-19?

most current vaccines 1

Pfizer, vaccine against Covid-19

Faced with the international emergency motivated by Covid-19, the scientific community got on with it. As of March 31, 252 vaccines were registered in development, 70 in clinical trials and 13 are already in use. Amazing!

Vaccines in use

  • Modern
  • Pfizer
  • AstraZeneca
  • Covivac
  • SPUTNIK V
  • CONFIDENCE
  • QAZCOVID-IN
  • Sinopharm
  • Sinovac
  • EPIVACCORONA
  • COVAXIN
  • Janssen
  • CanSino

Remember something very important. Vaccines do not prevent the virus from infecting you, they only ensure that you do not develop a serious illness. Protective measures do prevent you from contracting any viral infection.

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What is liquefied gas and how is it collected?

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The discovery of fossil fuel deposits radically changed the course of history. It is impossible to imagine the technological development that humanity now enjoys without the precious “black gold”.

With the processing of petroleum, many variants of fuels arose, including more efficient and less polluting. Liquefied gas is one of them. Do you know its variants and how to obtain it? In this article you will find the answers to this and other questions.

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What is liquefied gas?

liquefied gas 4

Liquid gas

There are 4 states of aggregation of matter: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. In nature, substances can pass from one form to another through different physical-chemical processes. When gases condense they change to a liquid state and this is precisely what happens with liquefied gas.

Technology intervenes in this process, since naturally most substances are present in a more or less invariable state. Industrially, two terms are used: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with clear differences between the two.

Liquefied petroleum gas is a derivative of the well-known “black gold” found naturally in deposits or collected during the industrial processing of crude oil.

It is composed of two types of condensable gases: propane and butane. These are organic molecules that are formed from the combination of hydrocarbons. In addition to this structure is added a residue from oil processing: 1,3-butadiene.

The pure formula for these gases is: C3H8 for propane and C4H10 for butane. This means that in the first case the molecule is made up of three carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms. In the case of butane, it would be 4 carbon and 10 hydrogen.

The GLP that is marketed does not retain this same state of purity since the carbon atoms: C3 and C4 are incorporated in a proportion of 80% -20%. Propane will always have a predominance of C3 bonds, while C4 stands out for butane.

LNG is a substance similar in appearance to water that is obtained by cool natural gas to -161 ° C. It is an industrial process whose objective is to optimize gas transport since doing so in a liquid state reduces its profitability.

Characteristics of liquefied petroleum gas and liquefied natural gas

liquefied gas 3

LPG is highly flammable

Some of the characteristics of LPG are:

  • Colorless: Transparent, similar to water.
  • Odorless: When obtained it does not give off any odor although later ethyl mercaptan is added for marketing. This odorant works as a security measure in order to identify a leak.
  • It is not toxic although it displaces oxygen so it is not recommended to expose yourself for a long time.
  • It is highly flammable so it should be kept away from any heat source.
  • It is very profitable as a fuel for its production and performance.
  • One liter of liquefied gas is equivalent to 273 liters of steam.

For its part, LNG offers some advantages compared to LPG. Their characteristics are:

  • Colorless.
  • It is naturally odorless. As with liquefied petroleum gas, mercaptan is added as a protective measure.
  • Is less polluting. During its combustion it generates negligible levels of sulfur oxide and greenhouse gases. This makes it an eco-friendly fuel and is therefore the liquefied gas of choice to reduce atmospheric pollution.
  • If spilled on land or water, it evaporates and rises without generating waste.
  • It is less flammable.
  • Takes up 600 times less space than in a gaseous state.

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Differences between LNG and LPG

liquefied gas 2

LNG is less heavy than LPG

In order for you to better understand the main differences between liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, I have prepared the following table for you.

CharacteristicLNGLPGComponents (edit)Methane (CH4) and other compounds to a lesser extent Propane and butaneGravityIt is less heavy than air so it disperses quickly It is denser than air therefore it does not dilute easily.Time spent at the flammable limitDoes not reach flammable range Stays for a long time. The risk of explosion is higher.ConservationAt atmospheric pressure with temperatures below -160 ° C, there are two variants: -With high levels of pressure and ambient temperature -Atmospheric pressure and temperatures from -1 to -45 ° C.ApplicationsDomestic and commercial uses Vehicle fuel

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LPG obtaining process

liquefied gas 1

LPG can be extracted directly from oil fields

The history of the use of LPG dates back to the beginning of the last century. It all started in the United States when it was found that natural gasoline evaporates as a result of the release of hydrocarbons present in the mixture.

This discovery led to the devising of a process for the refinement of fuel in order to extract propane and butane. After studying these gases, they found the high energetic value supporting its potential use as a fuel.

The collection of liquefied petroleum gas in refineries begins with the primary processing of crude oil in these plants. The derivatives obtained are: wet gas, gasoline, diesel, kerosene and vacuum diesel.

The latter are used for the production of gasoline and LPG is released as a by-product. These gases are included in a mixture in which there are other additives: gasoline and heavy products. Finally they are separated through a distillation process.

Despite the fact that the highest volume of LPG is obtained as a result of the oil refining, it can be extracted directly from oil fields.

The process consists of lowering the temperature to values ​​below -40 ° C to favor the condensation of these heavy elements. Then the liquid is introduced into distillation trains where the mixture of propane and butane is purified.

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What is plastic and where does it come from? NotiFresh.com

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Have you ever wondered what our lives would be like without plastic? Before 1950 the answer was very simple. Today, it is difficult to imagine the world without this material.

This is because more than 400 million tons of plastics produced each year flood everything. It is present in houses, streets, offices and even our own clothing and medical remedies.

But what is plastic? Where does it come from? Here we give you some information you need to know about this versatile and essential material.

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What we call plastic

plastic 4

Plastic bottles

The term comes from the Greek plastikos whose meaning is to mold. This definition refers to its capacity for malleability or plasticity during its manufacture. It is enough to pour a paste into a mold to obtain hundreds of thousands of copies of the same object.

We call plastic a range of products made up of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds. As a fundamental mechanical quality, they have the ability to form with pressure and heat.

Where you look you will find it. It is due to the great diversity of shapes, textures and colors in which you can find it. Has it happened to you that you have touched something that you did not know was plastic?

Plastic was born from a contest

plastic 3

John Weasley Hyatt, father of plastic

The first time plastic was created was as a result of a competition. It was called by the American billiard ball manufacturer Phelan and Collander in 1860.

The company awarded $ 10,000. The challenge? Replace the ivory used in the creation of the game balls with a resistant material that is acceptable in its aesthetics.

Who won? Historiography does not know it. However, this event served as a reason for John Weasley Hyatt will perform his experiments. Upon completion, he obtained what was then patented under the name of celluloid.

The discovery had a remarkable commercial success. The result of synthesizing cellulose in camphor and ethanol made it possible to manufacture different objects. It was used at first for knife handles, eyeglass frames, and a few other tools.

However, the most revolutionary thing at that time was the creation of the motion picture. Without it, the beginning of Movie industry at the end of the 19th century.

It was not until 1909 that humanity enjoyed the first fully synthetic plastic in history. When the American chemist Leo Hendrik Baekeland, he obtained a polymer of commercial interest. The Belgian-born scientist made the compound from phenol and formaldehyde molecules.

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How is plastic made today?

plastic 2

Manufacture of plastic bottles

The versatility of plastic materials is not just a product of their properties. The elements used in its formation affect characteristics such as:

  • Resistance to corrosion and chemical agents
  • Thermal and acoustic insulation
  • The good aesthetic presentation.

To manufacture them, two main processes are carried out: polymerization and poly-condensation. Both require specific catalysts, coming from highly complex chemical processes in many cases.

From natural compounds based on cellulose, coal, natural gas, salt and oil, the industry develops different plastic artifacts.

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An unsolved problem: plastic and the environment

plastic 1

Plastic debris on a beach

Half of the objects made of this material become waste in four or five years.

For 2017 a study published in the journal Science Advances warned about the amount of plastics produced by humans. Throughout history, it turned out to be comparable to the weight of a million Eiffel towers.

Other research talks about the number of grams of plastic that people ingest per week. These data are around 21 grams per month and just over 250 per year. This only through water, both bottled and tap.

On the other hand, the source of obtaining is mostly high molecular weight organic polymers. These are chemical derivatives of hydrocarbons. A considerable part of the world’s crude oil production goes to this industry.

The use of said non-renewable raw material implies in the first place the depletion of the resource. At the same time, as a consequence of industrial processes, greenhouse gases are emitted. These are emissions harmful to the ozone layer and stimulants of climate change.

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