In 1833 the first solid state photocell was created, which gave birth to what we would later know as photovoltaic system.
This first photocell was created by Charles Fritts, who covered a sheet of semiconductive selenium with a very thin layer of gold, which when it received sunlight, produced a small amount of electricity.
Although this invention opened the doors for many of the clean technologies that we know today, the reality is that it was very inefficient.
The first photovoltaic system could only convert 1% of the sunlight that its photocells received into energy.
Since then, science has not rested in its slow but steady search for more efficient ways to harness the most abundant energy on the planet, sunlight.
Photovoltaic system of the future seeks to take advantage of the abundance of sunlight
The Sun is the most abundant source of energy we have and all fossil, nuclear and wind fuels could not match the energy potential of the light that the Earth receives in a single day.
Since the late 20th century it has become clear that our dependence on fossil fuels is destroying Nature by leaps and bounds.
For this reason, most developed countries, with the exception of the United States, have set out to reduce this dependence in the next 20 years.
This forces us to develop the current photovoltaic system and develop more efficient, cheaper and cleaner alternative sources.
A study by the University of Tennessee, United States, determined the electricity potential of sunlight that the state of Texas receives in 1 day in its 695,662 km² of territory.
The result is that it is equivalent to 300 times the energy produced by all the nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric plants on the planet!
Improve the photovoltaic system, the best option for Humanity
At present It is urgent to accelerate the development of the photovoltaic system to make it more efficient and less expensive to build and operate.
Every year the generation of energy from alternative sources grows and up to 25 percent of the energy produced in developed countries comes from them.
From these sources, photovoltaic solar energy is the one with the greatest potential for development in the next 20 years, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)
If some experimental technologies can be consolidated, clean sources will produce up to 40% of the energy consumed worldwide by the year 2040.
The main objective, the reduction of CO2 emissions
The 2016 Paris Agreement marked the beginning of an international effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 3.5% per year through 2050.
To achieve this, the use of fossil fuels must be reduced now, but this cannot be done without ensuring that industry and households will receive the energy they need.
At present the best photovoltaic system in operation has an efficiency of 15 to 20%.
On the other hand, all the solar generation plants that currently exist cover only 2.5% of the world’s energy demand.
By 2050, the technology developed in different countries will make it possible to increase the photovoltaic system efficiency enough for it to generate 25% of the energy required in the world, using sunlight.
New tandem solar cell systems
The tandem photovoltaic system is a proposal that seeks to increase the efficiency of the solar panels that we know.
In this case, the solar cells are arranged in a “cascade” configuration, in superimposed layers.
Each tandem captures and transforms a specific band of sunlight it receives into electricity.
The light that passes through a tandem will then be captured by the next group of solar cells, which will take advantage of another part of the light spectrum to make energy, and so on.
The objective is make the most of all the energy contained in the sun’s rays that affect the solar panels.
In fact, under this type of configuration it has been possible to create the solar cells with the highest efficiency to date, 46% of the energy they receive from the Sun.
The innovative floating solar parks
It is common to see in some European countries, as well as in the United States and Australia large patches of flat land covered with thousands of solar panels pointed at the Sun.
However, between 2014 and 2018, numerous floating solar parks, in bays and coastal areas around the world.
By the end of 2018, the set of floating solar parks added a generation capacity of 1.1 Gigawatts.
This is surprising if only four years earlier this type of photovoltaic system it did not generate even 10 Megawatts.
For many countries with land limitations, these types of facilities are the perfect answer.
The sea offers ample space to install these plants, while the mainland can be used for agriculture or industrial activities, which would be fed by the energy obtained from the Sun.
Solar trees, the “natural” reorganization of the photovoltaic system
Solar trees are another novel way to increase energy production and reduce the space required by a photovoltaic system
A solar tree mimics a natural tree, but instead of leaves it has solar panels mounted on metal arms or “branches” that come out of a central column several meters high.
This makes it possible to place a good number of panels in a reduced space of land, making the most of the light that falls on said space.
In fact, a 6 meter tall solar tree occupying a 9 square meter plot can capture as much solar energy as a ground-level panel system occupying 400 square meters.
A practical use of solar trees is to power urban WiFi systems, charge mobile devices and provide shade in tourist areas of cities.
Photovoltaic agriculture, the mix of agriculture and solar energy
Solar tree technology will in turn lead to another revolutionary way of photovoltaic system, la Photovoltaic or Agrophotovoltaic Agriculture.
It is the combined use of land for the installation of solar trees and the cultivation of food.
Solar trees will produce the energy necessary for the different processes of planting and land management, in addition to supplying the local electricity grid.
At the same time, its shade will allow to refresh the soils, which will help to reduce the volume of water necessary for the plants.
The combination of solar trees and crops in the so-called “agrosolar parks” is a good economic option for businesses and farmers alike.
Increasing profitability guarantees the future of the photovoltaic system
One of the factors that allows us to predict great success when photovoltaic system The future is that the costs of this technology are reduced every year by leaps and bounds.
As reference, between 2010 and 2018 the average cost of producing electricity by transforming sunlight fell by 77%.
This allows us to assume that by 2050 the cost of producing 1 kilowatt of electricity from sunlight will be only 1% of what it costs today.
Improved battery technology enables solar energy to be stored and used at night, something that was impossible to believe just a few years ago.
Undoubtedly this, added to the growing ups and downs and risks of the oil industry, allow us to ensure that we will see a revolution in the energy sources that humanity uses.
But the most important thing is that there is an increasing possibility of achieving the long-awaited access to cheap and clean energy for all the inhabitants of the planet.
Impact of science and technology on modern life
Could you imagine life without cell phones, computers, or headphones? Surely not, today the impact of science and technology is taking on unprecedented proportions. Although these advances are generally associated with electronic devices, it is very difficult to mention an area that has not incorporated the advantages offered by current development.
Access to all kinds of information quickly
Science and technology together have led through modern computers and cell phones, a very effective source of information. Today it is possible to study from home through the internet, have knowledge of any subject that interests us just by searching on Google. You can also contact home or other services through an app or a website, and all this immediately. Thanks to all these scientific advances, people have a more fluid and simple life.
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Advances in medicine
The discovery of new vaccines and drugs for existing diseases has been the greatest impact of science and technology. An invaluable achievement that has not only benefited humans but also animals and plants. Scientists can get treatments with faster and more efficient, more detailed studies can be carried out. As a result, the number of deaths decreases and the quality of life of people improves.
The most important advances in medicine are and will be: liquid biopsy, robotic surgery, gene therapy, deciphering the cell atlas, treatment to cure different types of cancers, among others. Thanks to the current development achieved, diseases that previously devastated entire continents, such as the Black Death, have now been completely eradicated.
Today there are greater job opportunities and many more areas of study. For example, careers in computer science, telecommunications and different engineering, are carried out with technological devices, which work through the control of computerized systems and electronic equipment. As science advances and new discoveries come to light, workers and experts are needed in these areas and thus jobs increase.
Ease of transportation
The impact of science and technology on maritime, land and air transport is remarkable. Currently and for a few years it is not a problem to move from one country to another, or between cities with greater ease and comfort. It is not only the fact that there are means of transport but that by means of a cell phone, computer or tablet you can get plane tickets or hire a taxi. You don’t have to go looking for anything everything is within reach of a click.
Make housework easier
Of course, engineers and scientists devised technological devices to simplify everyday activities. There are kitchen appliances, for cleaning, those that facilitate the organization of your belongings, among others. This allows you to perform many tasks in a single day, since these they do almost all the work for you. Many of these devices consume practically no energy and are used with an internet connection or Bluetooth. It is the impact of science and technology that those who spend time at home and need to boost their performance most appreciate.
Today there are many more possibilities for entertainment than before. Children have all kinds of toys, can watch cartoons on television and have access to video games. They also spend fun days in the parks with devices such as roller coasters. For adults there are many sources of entertainment, there are movies, series, novels, amusement parks, games of different types available on the cell phone or computer, among others.
In the modern era it is almost impossible to get bored. Of course, the impact of science and technology in this area has also caused the alienation of many children, sometimes generating disorders such as autism. The excessive use of devices can leave psychological consequences, especially in the little ones. That is why it is also important to enjoy traditional means of fun and healthy recreation.
Greater efficiency in industrial processes
The use of technologies in the industries allows to achieve greater results in a minimum period of time which increases business profits. This provides a more precise and continuous work, replaces human labor with large machines. Also in terms of data management and control, specialized computer programs are created to facilitate the necessary storage and security.
While it is an invaluable impact of science and technology, the inclusion of robots in various industries has resulted in many employees being laid off. Thanks to the facilities provided by these devices, human labor has been dispensed with in many production areas. This raises concern, as more and more sectors are betting on robotics.
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Development of technical skills at a young age
It is very common for children today to have access to technological devices, such as cell phones, computers and others. Daily coexistence with these devices can cause an interest in computing and programming or creating video games. There are even many children who have been passionate about these areas and have achieved great results as creators. When technology is used correctly, the benefits can be incredible.
Surface pro, an option that you will not regret
Surface has been one of the Intel Core processor editions that have attracted much attention. One of the characteristics that has been criticized the most is that there were no exterior changes between the devices of past editions. Now comes the Surface pro 7+, an edition of the 11th generation of these microphones that allows you to expand the options.
Surface Pro 7+ features
This edition of the 11th generation Intel Core processor and many are the characteristics that I show you below. The CPU is a bit stronger and more efficient than those built into previous models in the family. The good news of the Surface Pro 7+ come in the graphic section. A notable jump that is seen in the tests manifests itself in the Intel Xe.
You can also expand the capacity with an SSD drive and thus expand availability. Another option is that has 32 GB of RAM. In terms of connectivity, it is improved, although there are no 5G features yet. Access to 4G or LTE is through a modem and so you can enjoy data networks, in addition to WiFi.
Some other data are:
- Screen. It is a 12.3-inch 2 736 x 1 824 Sense Pixel with a density of 267 dpi.
- Processor. Intel Core i5 1135G7.
- GPU. Intel Iris Xe Graphics.
- ROM. It is a 1TB non-removable SSD.
- Wireless connectivity. WiFi 6, Bluetooth 5.0, 4G or LTE mobile networks with a Snapdragon X20 modem.
- Connections. It has 1 USB type C, 1 USB 1, 1 minijack, 1 Surface Connect, 1 port for Type Cover, 1 nano SIM slot.
- Cameras. The rear sensor is 8 MP and the front one is 5 MP.
- Sound. The speaker is 1.6 W stereo with Dolby Audio Premium sound.
- Security. It has facial recognition with Windows Hello.
- Operating system. It is a Windows pro.
- Sensors. It has an accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, ambient light sensor.
- Weight. It weighs 775 grams without a cover.
- Price. So far the launch price is $ 999, in its 128 GB SSD version.
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The design of the Surface Pro 7+
Throughout the families prior to this edition, design has been an almost constant variable. In this case you are facing a convertible tablet and the frames are a bit big for the performance that is required of it. The weight and thickness are still a bit exaggerated, although reducing them could take away the battery life.
One of the most renowned changes is that at the rear, you have a hatch through which you you can put a M.2 format SSD drive. 2230. It is a functionality that is greatly appreciated, since the possibility of changing the SSD drive is essential to extend the useful life of the equipment. The support of the Surface pro 7+ protects the maneuvers of removing the nano SIM and changing the SSD.
As for the keyboard, one of the characteristics of this range of Tablet PCs is that they come with a keyboard in the case and this case is no different. The layout of the keys and the materials of the same did not undergo variations with respect to the previous ones. It takes advantage of the previous functionality of magnetically integrate into the screen. A notable detail is that it tends to sound a bit if you place it directly on the table.
Despite the above, the tactile response and resistance are adequate. In this case there is no fingerprint sensor, but the camera is covered with IR in the biometric part, which is located in the upper frame of the screen of the Surface pro 7+. The touchpad does not change either, it is still compact and with good tactile response and with support for gestures.
The main reason why this edition came out, is not to incorporate improvements in the CPU but in the GPU or graphics chip. So that you understand better, you will have the possibility of playing next-generation games, depending on the resolution you set. The 4 physical cores and 8 threads of executions they give you a wide spectrum of benefits.
The working frequency is 2.4 GHz and it can reach up to 4.2 GHz at times when the processing gets intense. Consumption is 28 W and the memory module is DDR4 and LPDDR 4X, reaching up to 4,367 MHz. The size of the semiconductors is 10 nanometers. This equipment is one of the best features as far as Tablet PC is concerned.
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More than 10,000 new craters on the moon caused by impacts
Everyone dreams of going to the Moon and this has been the source of inspiration for various investigations continuously. There are studies that reveal various information about the Moon, within them the craters that it has as a result of the impacts it has received stand out.
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Why are there craters on the Moon
For sure the most surprising data when we look at the moon are its craters on its entire surface and the question we all ask ourselves is why they are there. It turns out that many meteorites and asteroids have collided with the Earth and the Moon, so there was a time when it was called late heavy bombardment, in which many bodies in the solar system were bombarded or impacted by asteroids causing those visible craters. So the question remains, why are they visible on the Moon and not on Earth?
Why are there visible craters on the Moon and not on Earth?
How is it possible that, if both the Earth and the Moon suffered this shower of impacts, one does not show visible craters like the other? The answer is due to the fact that processes occur on Earth that do not occur on the Moon, these are:
- Erosion: This is a process that can make craters disappear as water, climate, and plants work to change soils.
- Tectonic plates: The movement of these plates makes the earth’s surface renew itself, being different from now to that of a few years ago.
- The existence of volcanoes: The volcanic flow eliminates the existence of some craters.
The Moon does not have these processes, there is no erosion in it because it does not have an atmosphere which means that there is no wind, no water, and no plants. It has no tectonic plates that modify the lunar surface. As for volcanism, in its beginnings it had a presence of these and they eliminated the marks that occurred, but it stopped producing eruptions more than three billion years ago.
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New craters on the Moon
We already know why there are craters on the Moon, but the news goes a little further, it turns out that it currently has more than 10,000 new craters. About which scientists believe could reveal information about the formation of the solar system.
Studies carried out by Chinese scientists confirm this information and it turns out that this amount is much greater than the 9,137 craters recognized by the International Astronomical Union.
How they detected the new craters on the Moon
To identify the existence of the new craters, the Chinese scientists took as a reference the craters that were already dated and those that had been previously identified. So they launched the ships with the aim of investigating these phenomena, detecting the presence of many more as a result. The following results were obtained:
- The craters of the Moon have no water, no atmosphere, no tectonic plates,
- Their age can be found by counting the small craters that are inside.
With this research and other precedents, China became the third country in the world to successfully collect lunar information and material.
As you can see, the Moon is still a source of studies and research that could reveal data on the formation of our Solar system.
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