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Examples of enzymes capable of destroying plastic in 10 hours



Through the study of thousands of examples of enzymes Researchers seek to find a cheap and fast formula to end the plastic pollution that affects the planet.

Plastic is not only a problem for the current generation, but also for our grandchildren and great-grandchildren, as it can take up to 1,000 years to degrade in nature.

Currently there are various projects to reduce floating plastic garbage in the oceans and new chemical and industrial methods are being investigated to degrade and recycle it.

But none have been economically viable enough.

Now this could change thanks to the creation of a enzyme type
synthetic that can degrade plastic in a few hours.

New examples of enzymes that solve a modern problem

Just as the massive use of stone and bronze marked the development of the first human civilizations, we are now in the so-called Age of Plastic.

This material is used in thousands of products of daily use that when discarded end up polluting the seas and soils all over the planet.

This contamination is so severe that microplastic has been found in the tissues of fish and other species consumed by humans.

Microplastic has also been found in the Arctic and in the Everest snow.

There is also plastic garbage at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, almost 10,000 meters deep.

It is estimated that Humanity has dumped more than 150 million tons of plastic garbage into the seas and this figure increases by 8 million tons each year.

Nature Magazine announces the new plastic-eating enzymes

On March 8, the prestigious journal Nature published an essay that made known the existence of this enzyme type

These enzymes they were discovered by the French research group Carbios and the University of Toulouse.

During 4 years they analyzed more than 100 thousand examples of enzymes
produced by bacteria and viruses to determine if any had the ability to attack plastic.

The winner was a type of enzymes produced by a common bacteria in the leaves of decaying trees.

From it, a synthetic and improved version called Hydrolase PET was created.

A type of enzymes very hungry for plastic

The most used plastic in the world is the so-called polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with which the bottles are made.

Teams from the University of Toulouse and Carbios produced hundreds of enzymes “Mutants” that had a greater ability to attack the chemicals of PET than the original natural enzyme.

The PET Hydrolase proved to have 10,000 times more power to break the bonds of the plastic and it also does so at 72 degrees Celsius, very close to the melting temperature of this type of material.

Carbios received financing from international companies such as the Pepsi Co, the cosmetics giant D’Loreal and the Nestlé company.

In the final test, the new molecule only needed 10 hours to dissolve 90% of a ton of PET waste.

Enzymes that give new opportunities to the environment and the industry

Enzymes that give new opportunities to the environment and the industry

This enzyme will benefit the environment and the plastics industry itself

In this regard, Carbios spokesmen stressed that these enzymes
They represent a sustainable solution for companies that seek to establish production-recycling processes at low cost and with high efficiency.

Carbios posted a message on Twitter in which he assured that they were “reinventing the life cycle of plastic.”

They also point out that now it will be possible to do a “complete recycling” of this material, something of great interest for companies seeking to reduce operating costs.

These examples of enzymes can complement another promising solution, the fully recyclable plastic developed by the Berkeley Laboratory in the United States.

What does the new enzyme represent for the plastics industry?

Although protecting the environment is valuable to humanity, these enzymes They could also save companies that make plastic products.

Companies spend a lot of money to buy the raw material to make plastic products.

The use of recycled plastic, although cheaper, is still expensive for many companies and the quality is not always adequate.

The use of PET Hydrolase would reduce the cost of plastic recycling by up to 25% and improve the quality of the resulting material.

This is very important at a time when large world economies such as China, Europe and the United States are facing the consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic.

When will PET hydrolase be on sale?

The Carbios company has prepared its business plan with a view to marketing this enzyme type globally between 2024 and 2025.

Currently, the testing phase is running to determine the real capacity of these examples of enzymes synthetic and elaborate the protocols of use in different conditions and materials.

This testing phase should be completed in mid-2021 and includes the construction of a demonstration plant together with the University of Toulouse.

Recycling is still the smartest solution, for now

examples of enzymes that help to recycle

The industry demands every year more PET to make bottles

Until we discover a way to replace plastic with a cheaper, more durable and inert material, the smartest solution is to improve recycling processes.

Currently 70 million tons of PET are used for the production of bottles of all kinds worldwide.

Added to this are millions of tons of other types of plastics used in the automotive, footwear, electronics, packaging and many other areas.

In fact, every year the industrial demand for plastics is increasing and many packaging manufacturers have increased the use of recycled plastic to lower their raw material acquisition costs.

And what about other types of plastic?

For now the enzyme Hydrolase only processes PET plastic, but work is underway to develop new examples of enzymes synthetics that disintegrate other varieties of material.

This is necessary considering that in the United States, Canada and Europe recycling of plastics is very common, but most plants end up mixing various types of material.

As a result, recycled plastic does not always meet the minimum quality to be reused in bottles for water, drinks and detergents, or for refrigerated food packaging.

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Impact of science and technology on modern life




Could you imagine life without cell phones, computers, or headphones? Surely not, today the impact of science and technology is taking on unprecedented proportions. Although these advances are generally associated with electronic devices, it is very difficult to mention an area that has not incorporated the advantages offered by current development.

Access to all kinds of information quickly

Science and technology together have led through modern computers and cell phones, a very effective source of information. Today it is possible to study from home through the internet, have knowledge of any subject that interests us just by searching on Google. You can also contact home or other services through an app or a website, and all this immediately. Thanks to all these scientific advances, people have a more fluid and simple life.

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Advances in medicine

The discovery of new vaccines and drugs for existing diseases has been the greatest impact of science and technology. An invaluable achievement that has not only benefited humans but also animals and plants. Scientists can get treatments with faster and more efficient, more detailed studies can be carried out. As a result, the number of deaths decreases and the quality of life of people improves.

The most important advances in medicine are and will be: liquid biopsy, robotic surgery, gene therapy, deciphering the cell atlas, treatment to cure different types of cancers, among others. Thanks to the current development achieved, diseases that previously devastated entire continents, such as the Black Death, have now been completely eradicated.

New jobs

Today there are greater job opportunities and many more areas of study. For example, careers in computer science, telecommunications and different engineering, are carried out with technological devices, which work through the control of computerized systems and electronic equipment. As science advances and new discoveries come to light, workers and experts are needed in these areas and thus jobs increase.

Ease of transportation

The impact of science and technology on maritime, land and air transport is remarkable. Currently and for a few years it is not a problem to move from one country to another, or between cities with greater ease and comfort. It is not only the fact that there are means of transport but that by means of a cell phone, computer or tablet you can get plane tickets or hire a taxi. You don’t have to go looking for anything everything is within reach of a click.

Make housework easier

Impact of science and technology on modern life

autonomous robot

Of course, engineers and scientists devised technological devices to simplify everyday activities. There are kitchen appliances, for cleaning, those that facilitate the organization of your belongings, among others. This allows you to perform many tasks in a single day, since these they do almost all the work for you. Many of these devices consume practically no energy and are used with an internet connection or Bluetooth. It is the impact of science and technology that those who spend time at home and need to boost their performance most appreciate.

Greater entertainment

Today there are many more possibilities for entertainment than before. Children have all kinds of toys, can watch cartoons on television and have access to video games. They also spend fun days in the parks with devices such as roller coasters. For adults there are many sources of entertainment, there are movies, series, novels, amusement parks, games of different types available on the cell phone or computer, among others.

In the modern era it is almost impossible to get bored. Of course, the impact of science and technology in this area has also caused the alienation of many children, sometimes generating disorders such as autism. The excessive use of devices can leave psychological consequences, especially in the little ones. That is why it is also important to enjoy traditional means of fun and healthy recreation.

Greater efficiency in industrial processes

Impact of science and technology on modern life

technology complement in the industry

The use of technologies in the industries allows to achieve greater results in a minimum period of time which increases business profits. This provides a more precise and continuous work, replaces human labor with large machines. Also in terms of data management and control, specialized computer programs are created to facilitate the necessary storage and security.

While it is an invaluable impact of science and technology, the inclusion of robots in various industries has resulted in many employees being laid off. Thanks to the facilities provided by these devices, human labor has been dispensed with in many production areas. This raises concern, as more and more sectors are betting on robotics.

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Development of technical skills at a young age

It is very common for children today to have access to technological devices, such as cell phones, computers and others. Daily coexistence with these devices can cause an interest in computing and programming or creating video games. There are even many children who have been passionate about these areas and have achieved great results as creators. When technology is used correctly, the benefits can be incredible.

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Surface pro, an option that you will not regret




Surface has been one of the Intel Core processor editions that have attracted much attention. One of the characteristics that has been criticized the most is that there were no exterior changes between the devices of past editions. Now comes the Surface pro 7+, an edition of the 11th generation of these microphones that allows you to expand the options.

Surface Pro 7+ features

Surface pro

Surface Pro 7+

This edition of the 11th generation Intel Core processor and many are the characteristics that I show you below. The CPU is a bit stronger and more efficient than those built into previous models in the family. The good news of the Surface Pro 7+ come in the graphic section. A notable jump that is seen in the tests manifests itself in the Intel Xe.

You can also expand the capacity with an SSD drive and thus expand availability. Another option is that has 32 GB of RAM. In terms of connectivity, it is improved, although there are no 5G features yet. Access to 4G or LTE is through a modem and so you can enjoy data networks, in addition to WiFi.

Some other data are:

  • Screen. It is a 12.3-inch 2 736 x 1 824 Sense Pixel with a density of 267 dpi.
  • Processor. Intel Core i5 1135G7.
  • GPU. Intel Iris Xe Graphics.
  • ROM. It is a 1TB non-removable SSD.
  • Wireless connectivity. WiFi 6, Bluetooth 5.0, 4G or LTE mobile networks with a Snapdragon X20 modem.
  • Connections. It has 1 USB type C, 1 USB 1, 1 minijack, 1 Surface Connect, 1 port for Type Cover, 1 nano SIM slot.
  • Cameras. The rear sensor is 8 MP and the front one is 5 MP.
  • Sound. The speaker is 1.6 W stereo with Dolby Audio Premium sound.
  • Security. It has facial recognition with Windows Hello.
  • Operating system. It is a Windows pro.
  • Sensors. It has an accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, ambient light sensor.
  • Weight. It weighs 775 grams without a cover.
  • Price. So far the launch price is $ 999, in its 128 GB SSD version.

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The design of the Surface Pro 7+

Throughout the families prior to this edition, design has been an almost constant variable. In this case you are facing a convertible tablet and the frames are a bit big for the performance that is required of it. The weight and thickness are still a bit exaggerated, although reducing them could take away the battery life.

One of the most renowned changes is that at the rear, you have a hatch through which you you can put a M.2 format SSD drive. 2230. It is a functionality that is greatly appreciated, since the possibility of changing the SSD drive is essential to extend the useful life of the equipment. The support of the Surface pro 7+ protects the maneuvers of removing the nano SIM and changing the SSD.

Keyboard issues

As for the keyboard, one of the characteristics of this range of Tablet PCs is that they come with a keyboard in the case and this case is no different. The layout of the keys and the materials of the same did not undergo variations with respect to the previous ones. It takes advantage of the previous functionality of magnetically integrate into the screen. A notable detail is that it tends to sound a bit if you place it directly on the table.

Despite the above, the tactile response and resistance are adequate. In this case there is no fingerprint sensor, but the camera is covered with IR in the biometric part, which is located in the upper frame of the screen of the Surface pro 7+. The touchpad does not change either, it is still compact and with good tactile response and with support for gestures.

Improved performance

The main reason why this edition came out, is not to incorporate improvements in the CPU but in the GPU or graphics chip. So that you understand better, you will have the possibility of playing next-generation games, depending on the resolution you set. The 4 physical cores and 8 threads of executions they give you a wide spectrum of benefits.

The working frequency is 2.4 GHz and it can reach up to 4.2 GHz at times when the processing gets intense. Consumption is 28 W and the memory module is DDR4 and LPDDR 4X, reaching up to 4,367 MHz. The size of the semiconductors is 10 nanometers. This equipment is one of the best features as far as Tablet PC is concerned.

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More than 10,000 new craters on the moon caused by impacts




Everyone dreams of going to the Moon and this has been the source of inspiration for various investigations continuously. There are studies that reveal various information about the Moon, within them the craters that it has as a result of the impacts it has received stand out.

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Why are there craters on the Moon

new craters on the moon 2

Craters on the Moon

For sure the most surprising data when we look at the moon are its craters on its entire surface and the question we all ask ourselves is why they are there. It turns out that many meteorites and asteroids have collided with the Earth and the Moon, so there was a time when it was called late heavy bombardment, in which many bodies in the solar system were bombarded or impacted by asteroids causing those visible craters. So the question remains, why are they visible on the Moon and not on Earth?

Why are there visible craters on the Moon and not on Earth?

Visible craters on the Moon and on Earth are not

How is it possible that, if both the Earth and the Moon suffered this shower of impacts, one does not show visible craters like the other? The answer is due to the fact that processes occur on Earth that do not occur on the Moon, these are:

  • Erosion: This is a process that can make craters disappear as water, climate, and plants work to change soils.
  • Tectonic plates: The movement of these plates makes the earth’s surface renew itself, being different from now to that of a few years ago.
  • The existence of volcanoes: The volcanic flow eliminates the existence of some craters.

The Moon does not have these processes, there is no erosion in it because it does not have an atmosphere which means that there is no wind, no water, and no plants. It has no tectonic plates that modify the lunar surface. As for volcanism, in its beginnings it had a presence of these and they eliminated the marks that occurred, but it stopped producing eruptions more than three billion years ago.

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New craters on the Moon

New craters on the Moon

New craters on the Moon

We already know why there are craters on the Moon, but the news goes a little further, it turns out that it currently has more than 10,000 new craters. About which scientists believe could reveal information about the formation of the solar system.

Studies carried out by Chinese scientists confirm this information and it turns out that this amount is much greater than the 9,137 craters recognized by the International Astronomical Union.

How they detected the new craters on the Moon

new craters on the moon 3

How they detected the craters

To identify the existence of the new craters, the Chinese scientists took as a reference the craters that were already dated and those that had been previously identified. So they launched the ships with the aim of investigating these phenomena, detecting the presence of many more as a result. The following results were obtained:

  • The craters of the Moon have no water, no atmosphere, no tectonic plates,
  • Their age can be found by counting the small craters that are inside.

With this research and other precedents, China became the third country in the world to successfully collect lunar information and material.

As you can see, the Moon is still a source of studies and research that could reveal data on the formation of our Solar system.

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